Formwork is the term used for the process of creating a temporary mould into which concrete is poured and formed. Traditional formwork is fabricated using timber, but it can also be constructed from aluminium, steel, glass fibre reinforced plastics, and other materials.


Types of Formwork:


1. Foundation Formwork. Foundation formworks can be designed in various ways. The type of design is dictated by the size, mainly by the height of the foundation formwork. The formwork for individual foundations is similar to column formwork and the formwork for strip foundations is similar to the formwork.

2. Wall Formwork. Wall formwork consists of vertically arranged upright timbers (formwork bearers) to which sheeting boards are nailed at the concrete side. The upright timbers are diagonally braced by means of boards at both sides. On cleats situated at every third upright timber, there are horizontally arranged walers.

3. Ceiling Formwork. Ceiling formwork is the type of formwork mostly found in structures/buildings. The formwork sheeting may consist of sheeting boards or prefabricated sheeting panels.

4. Beam Formwork. Beam formwork has prefabricated formwork sheeting parts (sheeting bottom and side sheeting panels). The sheeting bottom and the side panels consist of sheeting boards nailed together by means of cover straps.

5. Column Formwork. Similar to beam formworks, the sheeting of column formworks is prefabricated according to the column dimensions from sheeting boards connected by cover straps.


Requirements of good formwork:

1. Strong enough to withstand dead and live loads.
2. Capable of retaining its shape by being efficiently propped and braced horizontally and vertically.
3. Joints should prevent leakage of cement grout.
4. Should be capable of being removed in various parts without damaging the concrete.
5. Material used to be suitable for reuse.
6. Should be set accurately to the desired line.
7. As lightweight as possible.
8. Material should not warp or distort on exposure to the elements.
9. Should rest on a firm base.

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